About Asbestos Bankruptcy Trusts

You may know or have read of the number of bankruptcies that have occurred due to mesothelioma litigation. What you may not know is that most of the companies who have declared bankruptcy after exposing workers to asbestos for decades are still doing a thriving business. And because of their bankruptcies, they do not have to worry about mesothelioma victims suing them anymore.

What happened?

Establishment Of The Asbestos Bankruptcy Trusts

Realizing that there were an enormous number of potential lawsuits just sitting out there, waiting to be filed — one after another for decades — companies that manufactured products with asbestos quickly sought to limit their losses by filing for bankruptcy protection under Chapter 11.

As part of that process, dozens of asbestos bankruptcy trusts (some with billions of dollars) were set up to compensate people with asbestos-related medical conditions. Meanwhile, after funding those trusts as directed by the bankruptcy courts, many of the companies reorganized successfully, yet were now insulated from future claims.

It was a win-win situation.

Experienced Legal Representation Makes A Difference

Because each asbestos bankruptcy trust has a different structure, different claim procedures, different proof requirements and different pitfalls, it is important to have a lawyer who knows the rules and who has experience with filing asbestos bankruptcy trust claims.

At Gori Julian & Associates, P.C., we have an entire department committed to filing trust claims on behalf of our clients. Our team's experience and understanding of these trusts result in our clients receiving the maximum compensation for their injury.

Here is a full list of the asbestos bankruptcy trusts, along with information about who was exposed and the history of the company.

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For a free case evaluation, please call our law offices directly or contact us online. An experienced attorney will be available to discuss your potential lawsuit, answer any questions you have about asbestos bankruptcy trust claims and address any other concerns you may have as well.

A.C.&S., Inc.

A.C.&S did not stop using asbestos until the late 1970s. Even then, A.C.&S.' action was in response to federal regulations restricting the use of asbestos rather than the danger of the mineral.

One case, of note, involved workers in Mississippi. These individuals worked at a company that bought asbestos products manufactured by A.C.&S., but did not deal with A.C.&S. directly. The case went to trial and the six workers were awarded a total of $84 million.

*Results not typical, different circumstances make every case unique.

In 2002 A.C.&S. filed bankruptcy and after finishing that process a trust was created to help compensate the victims of A.C.&S.' use of asbestos.

A.P. Green

A.P. Green Industries was founded in 1910 in Mexico, Missouri. The company began as a clay brick manufacturer and grew rapidly by opening factories around the world. A.P. Green sold refractory bricks, which were used by industrial companies to line furnaces or equipment that operated at high temperatures. To ensure its bricks would be heat resistant, however, A.P.Green added large quantities of asbestos to the bricks.

Unfortunately, the men and women who worked at A.P. Green's facilities and the employees of companies that used their products were inhaling deadly toxins. Asbestos causes agonizing illnesses, such as asbestosis and an aggressive cancer called mesothelioma. Additionally, the asbestos fibers remain in a person's lungs for years and symptoms may not develop for decades. Thus, A.P. Green's victims might live for decades without knowing of the deadly injury they sustained. Workers at A.P. Green's facilities - in particular, boilermakers, steel workers and insulators - were placed in grave danger from their constant contact with asbestos.

In early 2002, A.P. Green entered bankruptcy proceedings. As part of A.P. Green's reorganization, a trust was established to help compensate those who were harmed by A.P. Green's use of asbestos.

Armstrong World Industries

Armstrong World Industries is a company from Lancaster, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1860 by Thomas M. Armstrong and John D. Glass. Armstrong began as a manufacturer of cork-board, linoleum and brick. The two men initially delivered their hand-carved bottle corks to their customers by wheelbarrow. From such humble beginnings, the company grew to be the largest cork supplier in the world by 1890.

Armstrong eventually became a multinational corporation selling insulation, ceiling materials, flooring, cabinets, ceramic tile and carpet. For decades, Armstrong used toxic asbestos in its products to make them heat resistant. The result was that the men and women who worked at the Armstrong factory were constantly inhaling asbestos dust. The workers who installed Armstrong products were also exposed to the asbestos, in particular, laborers, insulators, plumbers, carpenters and pipefitters.

Furthermore, records revealed during litigation show that Armstrong was processing workmen's compensation claims for asbestosis as early as 1950. Armstrong only halted its use of asbestos in response to federal regulations.

Armstrong filed for bankruptcy protection in 2000. After six years of restructuring, the company emerged from bankruptcy promising to allocate 30 million shares of stock to a trust fund to compensate victims of asbestos exposure.

A.W. Chesterton

A.W. Chesterton began in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1884. The company began by manufacturing supplies for steamboats and engines. The company grew and became a supplier of mechanical packing and industrial factory parts, as well as specialty lubricants, cleaners and thread sealants used by manufacturers.

Following the Second World War, A.W. Chesterton was able to expand its production capacities by establishing a market presence in eastern Canada and Mexico. The company marketed pumps and composites, such as glass, fiberglass and fiber optics. Today, the company focuses on composites, mechanical packing, hydraulic seals and mechanical seals.

A.W. Chesterton products are used in petrochemical factories, utility plants, shipyards, mines and paper mills. In addition, the federal government contracted with A.W. Chesterton to supply gaskets, valves, flanges and pumps for naval vessels.

Unfortunately, A.W. Chesterton used asbestos liberally in its products. In particular, A.W. Chesterton used asbestos in its industrial, fluid and sealing products. As such, the employees of A.W. Chesterton and its customers were placed in grave danger.

Babcock & Wilcox

Babcock & Wilcox Company began in 1867 in Providence, Rhode Island, when Stephen Wilcox and George Babcock patented the 'Babcock & Wilcox Non-Explosive Boiler.' Their boiler proved to be the best at the time and was widely used by the federal, state and local governments. In 1902, the Babcock & Wilcox boiler was used for the first subway in New York City.

Because the Babcock & Wilcox boilers were considered the best available, the United States Navy contracted with Babcock & Wilcox almost exclusively in the Second World War. Moreover, the company quickly expanded its production to furnish boilers for other industrializing nations, such as China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Turkey and Egypt.

Despite Babcock & Wilcox's success, there is human toll that resulted from their business. The company liberally used asbestos in the production boilers and refractory products. This was done to insulate the utility and marine boilers.

Babcock & Wilcox filed for bankruptcy protection in 2000, due to the thousands of victims of asbestos exposure. After emerging from that process in 2006, a trust fund was created to provide compensation for those individuals who were injured by asbestos exposure.

Bondex International

Bondex International is one of the many companies that injured American workers by using asbestos. Bondex is a subsidiary of RPM International, Inc. The company used asbestos in its products until 1981, long after asbestos was proven deadly. Most Bondex products were used for construction. Thus, Bondex not only injured employees who manufactured these products, but thousands of construction workers across the nation. Moreover, because asbestos is an airborne hazard, anyone working at a job site was at risk.

Bondex International has been involved in many asbestos-related lawsuits over the past 20 years. The majority of these cases arose in Florida, Illinois, Ohio, Mississippi and Texas.

Because of these lawsuits, the company has depleted most of its insurance coverage. The company reviewed its liability policies and decided to sue its insurance companies to challenge the ruling that policies have been exhausted. Thus, it is likely that more money will be available to cover the injuries Bondex caused to thousands of Americans.

Because Bondex was unable to estimate the liability it owed its victims, the company established a reserve of $140 million to cover known claims, as well as an additional $51.2 million for future claims.

Capco Pipe Company, Inc.

Capco Pipe Company, Inc., is based in Birmingham, Alabama. Capco is a subsidiary of a New York-based mining company, American Smelting and Refining Company, which once operated the largest silver mines in the United States. The company operated asbestos mines in Canada for decades to supply its subsidiaries with asbestos.

Capco Pipe Company produced piping for numerous industrial and commercial uses. They produced asbestos cement pipes called "Permaflex." Asbestos was used because it was resistant to corrosive fluids. Thus, the employees of Capco who built the pipes and the construction workers who installed Capco asbestos cement pipes were placed in grave danger.

Capco Pipe Company filed for bankruptcy protection in 2005. As part of Capco's restructuring, the court ordered the company to form a trust to compensate the victim's whom Capco exposed to asbestos.

Celotex

Celotex is a manufacturing company that produced industrial thermal insulation for pipes and boilers. Celotex's products were used for industrial construction and contained the toxic material asbestos for decades. Celotex is a subsidiary of Phillip Carey Manufacturing Company, which operated raw asbestos mines in Canada that supplied asbestos to factories in the United States.

The use of asbestos placed both the employees and the customers of Celotex at risk of contracting the severe illnesses caused by asbestos. The majority of the products containing asbestos made by the Celotex Company were used for insulation and were produced between 1906 and 1973.

In 1990, Celotex filed for bankruptcy protection. As a result of the bankruptcy, a trust was created in 1998 to help compensate those whom Celotex has injured through use of toxic asbestos.

Combustion Engineering

Combustion Engineering was formed in 1912. The company initially manufactured stokers and steam boilers. The company was able to stay profitable even during the Great Depression by incorporating new technologies, such as the production and refining of petrochemicals. Additionally, Combustion Engineering developed a marine propulsion system - 10 - which was more advanced than its competitors. Because of these innovations the federal government contracted with Combustion Engineering to supply boilers, pipe covering and insulating cement to the United States Navy.

Unfortunately, Combustion Engineering used asbestos in large measures to manufacture products.

The men and women who worked for Combustion Engineering, the companies who bought the products, and the men and women in the Navy serving their country were exposed to poisonous asbestos. Furthermore, workers in many other occupations such as boiler technicians, carpenters, mechanics, foundry workers, furnace workers, insulators, longshoremen, pipe-fitters, steelworkers and railroad workers were also exposed.

The company was forced to file for bankruptcy protection in 2003. After emerging from restructuring, a trust of $1.43 billion was created to compensate the victims of Combustion Engineering's use of asbestos.

Congoleum Corporation

The Congoleum Corporation has been a producer of flooring products for more than 120 years. The company's roots are from Scotland, where Michael Nairn pioneered inexpensive flooring by using heavy cloth from boat sails. Eventually, Nairn migrated to the United States and settled in Kearny, New Jersey. His business continued to grow and shifted to linoleum products, which were an economical alternative to wood-flooring.

Congoleum established a business relationship with an industrial supplier located in what was then called "Belgian Congo." The corporation's name, "Congoleum," was derived from this relationship. The inexpensive nature of Congoleum floors brought the Congoleum Company success as the United States experienced a housing boom after the Second World War.

While Congoleum Corporation enjoyed profits, their employees and customers were being poisoned by Congoleum products. For most of the company's history, Congoleum products contained a toxic substance called asbestos. Asbestos was added so the flooring was more durable and heat-resistant.

Those most vulnerable were employees, tile installers, contractors, construction workers, shipyard workers and members of the United States military.

Congoleum Corporation filed for bankruptcy protection in 1996. In 2003, those proceedings were completed and a trust was formed to benefit the victims of Congoleum's use of asbestos.

Durabla Manufacturing Company

Durabla Manufacturing Company is based in Norristown, Pennsylvania. Durabla grew by producing gasket sheeting for industrial and manufacturing companies. Durabla also manufactured packing materials. In addition, Durabla distributed sheet gaskets for Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. from 1914 until 1973. Unfortunately, the company used asbestos to make its products heat resistant and noncorrosive.

Durabla entered bankruptcy protection in 2009. As part of Durabla's restructuring, a trust has been formed to help compensate Durabla's victims of asbestos exposure.

Eagle-Pitcher Industries, Inc.

Eagle-Pitcher Industries, Inc., was first established in 1842 in Cincinnati, Ohio, by Edgar and Stephen Conkling. Together, they produced white lead paint. Eventually, the company expanded its operations to include lead pipe and plumbing parts. In 1915, the company merged with Pitcher Lead Company, located in Joplin, Missouri. The company grew rapidly and by 1919, Eagle-Pitcher Industries, Inc., was the nation's leading zinc manufacturer and one of the largest producers of lead. The company continued to grow and produced insulation called "slag wool." The product was durable and heat-resistant, but was filled with asbestos.

Eagle-Pitcher assisted the federal government during the Second World War. Eagle-Pitcher contracted to sell zinc, paint pigments, lead oxide, zinc oxide, bearing metals, antimonial leads and insulation products. Moreover, government war contracts assured that Eagle-Pitcher would have a continued advantage during the postwar boom. Indeed, following the war, Eagle-Pitcher was able to diversify its product line to supply construction companies during the postwar housing boom. The company also supplied products for the automotive and aerospace industries throughout the 1950s and 1960s.

Eagle-Pitcher used asbestos in large quantities until the mid-1970s, long after the scientific community had determined asbestos was toxic.

As a result, many workers and consumers were placed in grave danger of illness. In particular, construction workers, insulators, welders, plumbers, pipe-fitters, railroad employees and aerospace industry employees were placed at life-threatening risk of contracting deadly illnesses. Of course, the products produced by Eagle-Pitcher remain in factories, buildings and homes across the nation and remain a threat to the health of many Americans.

Eagle-Pitcher filed for bankruptcy protection in 1991 and emerged in 1997. The reorganization provided a trust for the victims of asbestos illnesses, but also included a court injunction against future litigation.

Fibreboard Corporation

The Fibreboard Corporation was founded on November 20, 1917, when a number of corporations consolidated. The company grew quickly by buying other companies, such as Plant Rubber & Asbestos Works in 1928 and the Cott-a-lap Company in 1929. The company continued to grow in this manner by merging with Schumacher Wall Board Corporation and buying the Pacific Roofing Company in 1953. In November 1950, the company changed its name to Pabco Products Inc.; however, that change was temporary and the company resumed the Fibreboard Corporation moniker in 1966.

The company operated factories in Metuchen, New Jersey; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland; and Emeryville, California. The company continued to buy other companies, in particular, lumber companies, gypsum plants and quarries.

Unfortunately, the company used asbestos liberally as a flame retardant for decades.

In 1993, Fibreboard agreed to pay $3 billion to current and potential victims of the company's asbestos use.

Flintkote Company

The Flintkote Company was founded in 1901 and incorporated in Massachusetts in 1917. The company grew rapidly and by the 1920s Flintkote had expanded its sales to Europe. In the 1930s Flintkote opened plants in New York, New Jersey, Louisiana, Illinois and California.

In 1956, the company made a series of acquisitions, which allowed Flintkote to produce gypsum, pipes, paper products and additional types of asbestos and cement. By 1963 the company ran 147 plants, of which 21 were international.

The company produced water-resistant products, such as Hydralt protective coating. Flintkote also produced Thermalkote, which was used to cover insulation and was resistant to both water and weather. Thermalkote could also be used to seal boiler walls. Both of these products contained a large measure of asbestos.

Those most severely injured by Flintkote's irresponsibility were the hard-working men and women employed in construction, factories, and as boilermakers and pipe fitters.

Flintkote faced many lawsuits as a result of its use of asbestos. Flintkote sold its construction, stone and cement products units in 1987 to raise capital. Still, the company entered bankruptcy protection in 2004.

Forty-Eight Insulations Company

The Forty-Eight Insulations Company was founded in 1923 in East Aurora, Illinois. Forty-Eight sought to produce high-quality insulation. To make heat-resistant insulation, however, the company used asbestos in large quantities. One such product was called Super 48 Insulating Cement. The company was eventually acquired by an insurance company, Foster Wheeler, in 1973, but continued to produce asbestos-insulating cement.

Forty-Eight used asbestos until 1982, long after it was known that the mineral was toxic. Additionally, the asbestos fibers remain in a person's lungs for years and symptoms may not develop for decades. Accordingly, Forty-Eight Insulations Company's victims might live for decades without knowing of the deadly injury they sustained. Customers, the employees of Forty-Eight and the constructions workers who installed Forty-Eight products began to file lawsuits to recover for severe injuries. In 1985, the company entered bankruptcy protection. After 10 years, a plan was created to cover the company's debts.

The Forty-Eight Insulation Qualified Settlement Trust was created to compensate the victims of Forty-Eight. Two separate amounts were placed into the trust fund. The first was $39 million to resolve existing claims. The second was $15 million for future claims.

G.A.F. Corporation

G.A.F. Corporation, which stands for "General Aniline and Film Corporation," was established in 1929 as an American subsidiary of a German chemical company, IG Farben. G.A.F. was created by IG Farben to compete with chemical firms in the North American market. Eventually G.A.F. became one of the leading manufacturers of residential and commercial construction products. These included deck materials, railings, decorative stone, ductwork and specialty fabrics. Unfortunately, the company used toxic asbestos to manufacture these products.

Unlike other companies in the United States which benefited from the Second World War, G.A.F. was seized by the United States federal government because of its German parent corporation. The federal government appointed the board of directors for the company until 1965. Thus, G.A.F.'s competitors, such as Kodak, Xerox and DuPont, were able to grow, while G.A.F. was seized.

After the seizure ended, however, G.A.F. acquired Ruberoid Corporation and quickly expanded its product lines. Through this acquisition, G.A.F. added roofing materials to its product line. Ruberoid products, however, used large amounts of asbestos for production.

Asbestos was added to insulation, shingles and residential siding because the mineral made the products resistant to weather and heat. Also, Ruberoid owned the largest asbestos mine in the state of Virginia. This mine continued to operate long after asbestos was scientifically proven to be toxic, but closed in 1975.

The manufacturing of G.A.F. products exposed thousands of workers and consumers to toxins. In particular, construction workers, miners, roofers, carpenters, and consumers were exposed to the dangerous system. In 2001, G.A.F. filed for bankruptcy protection and was reorganized. A court-ordered trust was established to address unsettled and ongoing asbestos claims. Despite bankruptcy, G.A.F. Corporation continues to be a successful company.

Garlock Packing Company

Garlock Packing Company was established by Olin J. Garlock in 1887 in Palmyra, New York. Mr. Garlock had developed a seal for the pistons of steam engines that was superior to other seals at the time. His company grew by providing seals and gaskets to industrial companies all around the United States. Because of the high temperatures of steam engines, Garlock used asbestos in its gaskets to make the products resistant to intense heat.

Garlock used asbestos from 1907 until 1980, which was long after it was confirmed that asbestos was directly linked to deadly cancers. As early as the 1920s, physicians recognized that exposure to asbestos caused severe sickness when asbestosis was identified by British medical journals.

The products that Garlock sold with asbestos were used by a variety of industries exposing thousands of workers to asbestos. Some of these businesses include the following: mining, power companies, paper mills, steel mills, electronic manufacturing, shipyards and pharmaceutical manufacturers.

Harbison-Walker Refractories Company

Harbison-Walker Refractories Company was founded in 1865 by J.K. Lemon. By 1910, the company had developed a diverse line of industrial products, such as, super-duty silica refractories for steel mills, fire clay, forsterite refractories for glass manufacturing, products for open-hearth steel furnaces, kilns and copper converters. Harbison-Walker manufactured high-grade, fireproof, ceramic refractory products, which are used for high-temperature environments. Such products are needed by many industrial settings, such as the cement, lime glass, iron and steel industries.

Harbison-Walker grew rapidly during the industrial expansion of the 20th century. The company's operations spanned from Canada to Peru. The company operated many iron mills and clay mines. Eventually free trade lowered demand in the United States for domestic steel, however, and Harbison-Walker downsized its works force. In 1998, Halliburton Company bought Harbison-Walker for $7 billion.

Unfortunately, to make its products heat-resistant, Harbison-Walker used asbestos in great measure for decades.

The company placed its own employees and customers in grave danger of the serious health conditions caused by asbestos exposure. Harbison-Walker's use of asbestos placed workers of many industries at severe risk, especially steel workers, chemical plant employees, potters, shipyard workers, glazers, miners and boilermakers.

In 2002, Harbison-Walker filed bankruptcy protection due to asbestos injury claims. In 2005, Halliburton settled Harbison-Walker's asbestos claims with a $4.17 billion settlement.

Haveg Industries, Inc.

Haveg Industries, Inc., was founded in 1929 in Wilmington, Delaware. The company began as a wire, cable and plastic manufacturer, which focused on meeting the demands of the aerospace industry.

In 1933, a factory was opened in Marshallton, Delaware, near the outskirts of Wilmington, Delaware. Haveg expanded its capacity to create a wide range of plastic products. Notably, Haveg supplied the wire harnesses used by NASA for the Apollo space program. Haveg produced the intricate wiring for the "Command Module" and "Lunar Module," which were used in 1965 on the Apollo 8 space capsule. The company grew to eventually operate plants in Taunton, Massachusetts, Winooski, Vermont, and Santa Fe, California.

From 1955 through 1981, Haveg was exchanged by a number of owners, first Hercules, Inc., and then Champlain Cable Corporation. Finally, in 1980 Haveg was acquired by AMETEK, Inc. Unfortunately, Haveg used asbestos in resin and plastic products, specifically in products called 'Haveg 41 Standard,' 'Haveg 50 For Alkalis' and 'Haveg 60.' Haveg 41 was a product which was used as a heat-resistant liner to insulate pipes. Haveg 60 was used as a high grade plastic by companies such as Boeing. Both of these products were produced in Newark, Delaware. They were used in the construction industry, aerospace, chemical industry, textile industry, metallurgical industry and petroleum industry.

H.K. Porter Company, Inc.

H.K. Porter Company, Inc., was founded in 1866 by Henry Kirke Porter in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Until 1950, H.K. Porter was the nation's largest producer of industrial locomotives, having built approximately 8,000 of them. The locomotives built by Porter were smaller than their competitors and could be operated by a single engineer. They were most often powered by steam. In addition, H.K. Porter cornered the market on locomotives propelled by compressed air, which were used in coal mines.

The company grew rapidly following the First World War, when there was a construction boom across the United States. The company was unable to weather the Great Depression, however, and entered bankruptcy in 1939. The company was bought by investors and during the Second World War was able to profit from the demand needed to fight the war. Nevertheless, following the war the popularity of locomotives diminished. The increasing availability for air travel and the automobile led to declining demand for locomotives. In 1950 the company halted locomotive production.

Unfortunately, H.K. Porter used asbestos in its locomotives for decades. The toxic material was used in large measure to insulate the engines, which operated at extremely high temperatures. The presence of asbestos, however, was a death sentence for the men and women who were employed for H.K. Porter and in the rail industry. Moreover, because asbestos is an airborne hazard, anyone working at a job site was at risk. If asbestos particles are inhaled they lodge themselves in the lining of the lungs.

Even after H.K. Porter ended locomotive production in 1950, the company continued to manufacture and sell asbestos products. Some of these included conveyor belts, elevator belts, oil field products and ducting. H.K. Porter asbestos products ended up in shipyards and factories across the country.

Because of its use of asbestos, H.K. Porter filed for bankruptcy protection. In 1998, as part of its reorganization plan, the company established the H.K. Porter Asbestos Trust to compensate the victims of its asbestos use.

Kaiser Aluminum

Kaiser Aluminum was founded in 1946 by Henry J. Kaiser. Kaiser became involved in the aluminum industry, including the mining, refining, manufacturing and fabrication of aluminum products. The company operates in the United States, Canada and in Wales. Eventually, Kaiser narrowed its business to focus on aluminum products for major suppliers and manufacturers. Kaiser produced about 500 million pounds of aluminum each year.

For decades, Kaiser Aluminum used asbestos liberally in the products it manufactured for aerospace and automobiles. Additionally, Kaiser contracted with the United States Navy to provide fiberboard and insulation for naval vessels.

In 2001, Kaiser entered bankruptcy protection due to the volume of claims from injuries caused by exposure to asbestos. The company was able to emerge from bankruptcy in 2006 and established the Kaiser Asbestos Trust Fund to resolve claims from asbestos injuries.

Keene Corporation

Originally called the Keene Packaging Corporation until 1967, the Keene Corporation achieved success by selling fireproofing, bearings and insulations products, which contained asbestos. The first product made by Keene was heat-sealed plastic packaging. The company eventually expanded to see microcircuits, industrial bearings, fireproofing and lightning fixtures.

In 1993, the company entered bankruptcy due to its liabilities for using asbestos. After reorganization, the company emerged from bankruptcy in 1996. Part of Keene's reorganization provided for the formation of the Keene Creditors Trust, which set aside money to compensate those who were victims of asbestos exposure.

Johns-Manville Corporation

Johns-Manville Corporation was formed in 1901. The company offered a line of automotive sheet backing, asbestos cement, asbestos-based insulation and roofing materials.

The company grew rapidly during both World Wars because it was able to contract with the federal government, which used asbestos-based insulation for manufacturing, in shipyards and on naval fleets. Additionally, Johns-Manville Corporation produced fiberglass insulation and asbestos cement pipe. The company developed an international presence and grew rapidly.

In 1933, Johns-Manville began to settle worker's compensation claims of its employees that arose from asbestos exposure in manufacturing facilities. Nevertheless, Johns-Manville used asbestos until 1985. Some products that used asbestos were asbestos-paper, block insulation, cement board, cements, cloth, electrical products, gaskets, felt, floor tile, packing seals, pipe covering, piping, roofing products, siding and wallboard. Thus, Johns-Manville placed the health and safety of its workers, naval crews, and customers in grave danger. Even worse, Johns-Manville helped fund the cover-up of the truth that asbestos is dangerous.

In 1970, Johns-Manville formed an organization called the Asbestos Information North America (AIA) and provided the group with a $300,000 annual budget. The purpose of the group was to produce faux-scientific studies to undermine research, which had shown the danger of asbestos to human beings. Thus, the company attempted to conceal the danger of asbestos by deliberately rebutting science with disinformation.

In 1981 the company filed for bankruptcy protection due to the asbestos-based injuries it caused. Unlike most company's entering bankruptcy, however, Johns-Manville was not insolvent. The company reported $1.1 billion of profits that year. The company was seeking to shield itself from the claims of individuals whom it had harmed for decades. In 1988 the company emerged from bankruptcy. A trust was created to compensate future asbestos injury claims.

National Gypsum

National Gypsum began in 1925. The company sold wallboard, which was lighter and more flexible than its competitors' products. As a result, even during the Great Depression, the company's market share grew and doubled in size within 10 years. National Gypsum operated gypsum mines, paper mills, paint factories and asbestos cement factories across the country.

Unfortunately for the employees of National Gypsum and the company's customers, many National Gypsum products were manufactured with asbestos. This included, adhesives, ceiling panels, cement board, cements, fireproofing materials, gaskets, pipe covering, plasters, roofing materials, shingles and wallboard. Asbestos was often used as an insulation material because it was fire-resistant, inexpensive and readily available. Many of the National Gypsum asbestos products were sold until the 1970s.

The use of asbestos also led to industry-wide danger for many workers. This included workers in the construction business, drywall tapers, plasterers, sheetrock hangers and insulation installers. Moreover, this asbestos was installed in both commercial and residential construction.

In 1990, National Gypsum was forced to enter bankruptcy protection due to the claims of individuals injured by National Gypsum asbestos products. In 1993, the company was able to conclude bankruptcy proceedings. As a result of those proceedings, a trust was created to compensate individuals injured by National Gypsum.

North American Refractories Company

North American Refractories Company provides high-grade fireproof refractory products for many industrial factories. Typically, North American Refractories Company's products are used in high-temperature environments by cement, lime, chemical, steel and glass manufacturing companies. Historically, North American Refractories Company served the steel industry - from iron ore mining operations to final production in steel mills. The company operated four factories with 700 employees.

Unfortunately, North American Refractories Company used asbestos for decades to make its refractory products heat-resistant. Asbestos is extremely heat-resistant and inexpensive. Using asbestos, however, created serious dangers for employees of North American Refractories Company.

Worse, evidence revealed in prior litigation shows that the leaders of North American Refractories Company knew fully of the danger of asbestos, but continued to use it for decades to protect their profits. North American Refractories Company did not even provide basic protection to its employees, like protective gear to prevent inhalation. Thus, workers at steel mills, oil refineries, chemical plants, miners, boilermakers, and many others were injured by North American Refractories Company.

As employees from North American Refractories Company became increasingly sick, the company faced enormous litigation costs. Accordingly, in 2002 North American Refractories Company filed for bankruptcy protection. In 2007, the court recommended that North American Refractories Company form a trust account to resolve claims made by persons injured by North American Refractories Company.

Owens-Corning

The Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corporation was formed in 1938. The company was successful and by the 1980s was earning profits worth $3 billion. The company produced asbestos insulation products, which were installed in both industrial and residential building construction. For example, Owens-Corning produced a popular product called "Kaylo" brand piping and block insulation. Also, the company made One Cote Cement and Owens-Corning Fiberglas Insulating Cement, which were sold as loose powders and contained toxic asbestos.

The popularity of Owens-Corning products meant Owens-Corning's asbestos became ubiquitous in shipyards, construction sites, factories and homes around the nation. Many Americans were placed in serious danger, such as boiler workers, construction workers, insulators, pipe fitters, plumbers and shipyard workers.

Owens-Corning chose to protect its substantial profit margins rather than discontinue use of the mineral. Due to the multitude of people Owens-Corning harmed, the company was forced to enter bankruptcy protection in 2000. The company emerged from bankruptcy protection in 2006 and formed a trust to assist the victims of asbestos exposure.

Phillip Carey Manufacturing Company

Phillip Carey Manufacturing Company has been a subsidiary of Rapid American Corporation since 1972. Before that merger, Phillip Carey had been party to a number of mergers. Accordingly, there has been confusion about which company used asbestos. Phillip Carey used asbestos to manufacture industrial equipment, such as boilers, insulation, generators and pipes, for decades. The company was founded in Ohio, in 1888. The company even owned its own asbestos mines.

Phillip Carey used the deadly mineral until the 1960s. Thus, the employees who made Phillip Carey products, the workers who installed them and the customers of their products were placed in grave danger of developing asbestosis and the aggressive cancer called mesothelioma.

Phillip Carey and its parent company, Rapid American, faced enormous liability because they injured many people. The division of the company that was responsible for settling these cases was Celotex. Celotex, however, chose to ferociously litigate the claims for years rather than compensate the victims.

Nevertheless, Celotex eventually declared bankruptcy in 1990 and entered protection of the court. By that process a trust fund was created to compensate the individuals injured by Phillip Carey. That fund, however, was insufficient and many individuals still need to be compensated for their injuries.

Pittsburgh Corning

Pittsburgh Corning grew to be a prominent manufacture of construction products such as cellular glass insulation and glass blocks. In particular, Pittsburgh Corning sold a product called "Unibestos," which was an insulation product that was resistant to high temperatures. Pittsburgh Corning used a certain type of asbestos called amosite asbestos, which is more commonly called brown asbestos. Pittsburgh Corning imported amosite asbestos from South Africa and Unibestos products contained anywhere from 60 to 90 percent amosite asbestos.

The result of this conduct meant sickness and death for thousands of workers across the United States. Specifically, Pittsburgh Corning operated factories in Tyler, Texas, and Port Allegany, Pennsylvania, to produce Unibestos. Records have been revealed that prove Pittsburgh Corning executives had knowledge of the serious health risks asbestos exposure creates. Even after the manager of a Pittsburgh Corning plant died of mesothelioma in 1970, the company continued to use asbestos until 1972. Fortunately, the plant in Tyler, Texas, was closed by the Occupational Health and Safety Administration because it was dangerous beyond repair.

Thousands of American workers were placed in grave danger of contact with amosite asbestos. In particular, construction workers, insulators, plumbers, naval personnel, power plant and steel mill workers, and shipyard workers, have contracted cancer from their exposure to Unibestos.

In 2009, Pittsburgh Corning proposed that a trust be formed to compensate the victims of its use of amosite asbestos. This trust would address all present and future claims made by individuals injured by Pittsburgh Corning.

Plibrico Company, LLC

Plibrico Company, LLC, was found in 1914 and is headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, on Goose Island. The founder of Plibrico was W.A.L. Schaeffer. Early in the company's history, Schaeffer believed that the industrialization of the United States would require sophisticated refractories. Accordingly, he pioneered the monolithic refractory for that purpose.

Monolithic refractories are refractories, which are a single piece. They are sturdy and heat-resistant. The company developed a line of high alumina and aluminosilicate refractories. Plibrico has been recognized as one of the leading refractory producers in the country.

Plibrico used asbestos liberally to ensure that the Plibrico refractories could withstand high temperatures. This meant that employees at Plibrico's factory were exposed to large amounts of the deadly mineral. Additionally, employees who worked to install, repair and maintain refractories were also exposed to asbestos. Many of these men and women developed the cancer known as mesothelioma.

Because Plibrico injured thousands of men and women, the company faced enormous liability. In 2002, the company filed for bankruptcy protection. It emerged from bankruptcy after four years and created the Plibrico Asbestos Trust to handle current and future asbestos claims against the company.

Quigley

In the 1940s, Quigley began manufacturing two insulation products that contained asbestos. They were called Insulag and Panelag. In 1959, the Aetna health-insurance company conducted a study on behalf of Quigley and determined that Insulag products presented a serious risk of asbestos exposure. The company chose to continue to produce asbestos products, however, until 1973 and even advertised them as 'non-injurious.' Quigley's asbestos was lined on boilers, pipes and furnaces. Thus, many workers, such as laborers, pipefitters, insulators, boilermakers and masons were placed in serious danger of contracting asbestos-related diseases.

Quigley eventually entered bankruptcy protection and a trust has been proposed to compensate the victims of asbestos exposure. The trust would be funded by a $430 million payment from Quigley's parent corporation, Pfizer.

Synkoloid Company

Synkoloid Company is a corporation from Bayonne, New Jersey. Synkoloid manufactures paint, varnish, brushes, bituminous derivatives, asphalt, adhesives, sealants, tape, pitch and Gilsonite. In 1975, Synkoloid was bought by Artra Group. For decades Synkoloid manufactured products that contained toxic asbestos. Asbestos was used because it was inexpensive and a natural insulator. These products were used in both commercial and residential construction projects.

Synkoloid's decision to use asbestos placed the lives of thousands of Americans in grave danger, in particular, those who worked as painters, drywall installers and carpenters.

These products were used in both residential and commercial constructions. The asbestos particles in residential housing can come loose over time, during home maintenance or during remodeling. Thus, the number of individuals placed at risk of developing asbestos-related illness is countless.

In 2002, Synkoloid's parent corporation, Artra, was forced to file for bankruptcy protection due to the liability, which use of asbestos caused. After emerging from bankruptcy, Artra established the Artra Asbestos Trust to provide redress for pending and future claims.

Turner & Newall

Turner & Newall was founded in 1871 in Rochdale, United Kingdom. The company initially began as a manufacturer of cotton-cloth packaging. In 1879, the company began to weave asbestos with cloth using machinery. The company continued to diversify its product line and after the First World War, Turner & Newall opened an asbestos cement plant. These asbestos cement sheets were used widely for roof and wall construction in industrial and agricultural buildings. In 1949 the company relocated to Manchester, England, and produced gaskets for the automotive industry. Turner & Newall quickly became the largest asbestos producer in the United Kingdom.

Turner & Newall manufactured a spray-on, fireproofing and thermal insulation product called sprayed limpet asbestos. This was distributed in the United States and Canada. It consisted of 60 percent asbestos. The product was sprayed directly onto surfaces instead of paint and provided heat-resistance. For example, the restaurant on top of the Space Needle in Seattle was sprayed with more than 22,000 square feet of Turner & Newall limpet asbestos.

Turner & Newall also operated a subsidiary in the United States named Keasbey & Mattison Company, which also sold asbestos products.

Turner & Newall also maintained a number of asbestos mines in southern Africa. Beginning in 1939 and until 2001, Turner & Newall operated an asbestos mine in Havelock, a town in the Kingdom of Swaziland. In 1953, the company bought a major producer of chrysotile asbestos products in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

Additionally, Turner & Newall had a factory in Armley, England, which operated beginning in the 1870s until 1956. There asbestos materials were broken down and used to line boilers and mattresses. Unfortunately, England did not regulate asbestos until 1970, so the factory operated outside basic safety regulation. The factory emitted asbestos dust, which covered the streets and rooftops of surrounding houses. It was not uncommon for children to be seen playing in the dust in the streets, making 'snowballs' which were thrown in ignorance of the danger. Children were often reported to play in the factory yard, jumping on the dusty bales of asbestos stored there. While the factory closed in 1956, the toll of its victims continues to climb.

Similarly, in Leeds, England, there was an exceptionally high-rate of cancer deaths that has been linked to the practices of Turner & Newall's factory management there. Asbestos was stored in open in bales and sacks outside the factory on a public road. As early as the 1930s, it was known that deadly illnesses, such as asbestosis and the aggressive cancer, mesothelioma, are caused by exposure to asbestos. Additionally, the asbestos fibers remain in a person's lungs for years and symptoms may not develop for decades.

Turner & Newall's victims might live for decades without knowing of the deadly injury they sustained. Turner & Newall's use of asbestos not only injured individuals in Britain, but injured thousands in the United States. For example, the products were used in the Ports of New York and New Jersey, the World Trade Center, and in airports, such as John F. Kennedy, La Guardia and Newark. Additionally, limpet asbestos was sprayed in the Chase Manhattan Bank in New York City.

Turner & Newall's corporate culture was one that ignored the scientific evidence, which showed asbestos was deadly. The company's founders believed that doctors' opinions and judgment should be challenged and that the interests of the corporation were paramount. In 1998, Federal-Mogul, a Michigan based company, acquired Turner & Newall. Federal-Mogul was forced to file for bankruptcy protection, however, as a result of asbestos claims in 2001.

The company emerged in 2007 and a trust was created to compensate the victims of asbestos exposure.

United States Gypsum Company

The United States Gypsum Company manufactured a wide variety of products for construction companies for more than a century. The company produced joint tape, insulation board, exterior panels, finishing products, cement, paint, mica products, ceiling panels and molder plaster. The company survived the Great Depression because of the variety within its product lines.

United States Gypsum Company used asbestos until 1978, long after it was scientifically proven that asbestos caused deadly illnesses. Thus, thousands of men and women were placed in grave danger. Those in the highest risk were workers in manufacturing, at chemical plants, in construction, shipyards and textile factories.

Faced with liability, United States Gypsum Company filed for bankruptcy protection in 2001. Once the company emerged from bankruptcy, an Asbestos Personal Injury Settlement Trust was formed as part of the company's bankruptcy process. The trust began accepting claims in 2007.

Worthington Pump and Machinery Corporation

In 1840, H.R. Worthington invented the first direct-acting steam pump and founded the Worthington Pump and Machinery Corporation soon thereafter. The company grew and gained international status by opening plants in Europe. Additionally, in the late 19th century, the company sold the British government pumps that supplied the Royal forces with water while they fought in Northern Africa. In 2000, the company became a subsidiary of the Flowserve Group.

Unfortunately, Worthington used asbestos to make the gaskets for its pumps and for asbestos chord, which was wound inside the pump. Thus, the employees of Worthington, laborers, pipe fitters and many others were placed in severe danger.

W.R. Grace & Company

W.R. Grace & Company is well known for producing an insulation product called "Zonolite." The company was founded in Peru in 1854 by William Russell Grace. Initially, the company produced fertilizer and gunpowder, but quickly began producing machinery. In 1899, the company was incorporated in New York. The company quickly expanded its productions by acquiring chemical companies and eventually moved its corporate headquarters to Columbia, Maryland. Additionally, Grace was the first corporation to open a foreign-owned factory in the People's Republic of China by opening a sealing plant in Shanghai. Despite such success, however, W.R. & Company has a checkered history - one littered with criminal indictments.

W.R. Grace & Company manufactured a diverse line of products that contained asbestos. Asbestos was often used in industrial settings and for insulation because it was inexpensive and heat-resistant. Most Grace products were used in the construction industry. Thus, many workers involved in the construction industry were exposed to deadly asbestos, particularly those involved with roofing, concrete, insulation and waterproofing. Further, it is estimated that W.R. Grace & Company's vermiculite mine in Libby, Montana, supplied about 80% percent of the nation's insulation. The vermiculite, however, in the Libby mine was contaminated with asbestos.

Tens of millions of homes in the United States are lined with poisonous insulation from the Libby mine. When the asbestos in a building is disturbed, even by simple restorations, such as installing a ceiling fan, fibers break off into the air where they are be inhaled by residents.

W.R. Grace was, notoriously, the subject of a book and film called "A Civil Action." This story is based on the lawsuits of residents of Woburn, Massachusetts. Residents of Woburn, a small suburb of Boston, noticed high rates of leukemia. Scientists from Harvard University concluded that the leukemia was the result of W.R. Grace's practice of dumping chemicals in the water supply. W.R. Grace settled the suit with the people of Woburn for $8 million in an out-of court settlement.

More recently, Libby, Montana, has brought into light W.R. Grace's unconscionable corporate practices. In 1963, W.R. Grace bought the mine in Libby, Montana. Corporate records within W.R. Grace show that early in the 1970s the company's officers knew that the vermiculite was contaminated with asbestos and that Libby residents were dying. Federal prosecutors criminally indicted executives from W.R. Grace on a number of charges related to covering up the dangers of asbestos. Most of the judge's evidentiary rulings were overturned on appeal. Nevertheless, executives were acquitted in 2009. Still, many in Libby feel justice had not been served.

Soon after, the Environmental Protection Agency required W.R. Grace to pay a $250 million fine to reimburse the federal government for cleanup in Libby. That amount is the largest fine in history by the Environmental Protection Agency's "Superfund" program. Bizarrely, when the E.P.A. requested documents from the company, the company mailed the documents to the E.P.A., which were covered in asbestos powder.

Because of these claims, the company filed for bankruptcy protection in 2001. Shortly before filing, the company transferred several billion dollars to spin-off companies as an attempt to protect itself from civil suits. The Justice Department found this to be a fraudulent transfer of funds, and the courts ordered that over $1 billion be returned to the company to be used to pay off the debts. As part of the bankruptcy proceedings, W.R. Grace has been ordered to set up a $3 billion trust to help compensate the victims of asbestos exposure.